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  • 英文诗歌赏析之技巧

    作者:ihome 时间: 2011-03-05 20:43 来源:未知 点击:

    诗以高度凝结的语言表达着人们的喜怒哀乐,用其特有的节奏与方式影响着人们的精神世界。诗讲究联想,运用象征、比喻、拟人等各种修辞手法,形成了独特的语言艺术。

    英诗浩如烟海,篇幅长短不一。为使大家了解英诗,并能欣赏,请大家学习以下四个方面的内容:诗的格律、诗的押韵、诗的体式、诗的评判。

    一、 诗的格律

    格律是是每个音步轻重音节排列的格式,也是朗读时轻重音的依据。而音步是由重读音节和非重读音节构成的诗的分析单位。重读音节为扬(重),非重读音节为抑(轻),音步之间可用“/”隔开。以下是五种常见格式: 1. 抑扬格(轻重格)Iambus:是最常见的一种格式,每个音步由一个非重读音节加一个重读音节构成。

    As fair / art thou / my bon/nie lass,

    So deep / in luve / am I :

    And I / will luve / thee still,/ my dear,

    Till a` / the seas / gang dry:

    注: art=are thou=you luve=love thee[thou的宾格] bonnie=beautifl a`=all gang=go

    上例中为四音步与三音步交叉。

    2.扬抑格(重轻格)Trochee:每个音步由一个重读音节加一个非重读音节构成。

    下例中为四音步扬抑格(少一个轻音节)。

    Tiger!/ Tiger!/ burning / bright

    In the / forests / of the / night

    3. 抑抑扬格(轻轻重格)Anapaestic foot: 每个音步由两个非重读音节加一个重读音节构成。如:三音步抑抑扬格

    Like a child / from the womb,

    Like a ghost / from the tomb,

    I arise / and unbuild / it again.

    4. 扬抑抑格(重轻轻格)Dactylic foot: 每个音步由一个重读音节加两个非重读音节构成。如:两音步扬抑抑格

    Touch her not / scornfully,

    Think of her / mournfully.

    5. 抑扬抑格(轻重轻格)Amphibrach:每个音步由一个非重读音节加一个重读音节再加一个非重读音节构成。如:三音步抑扬抑格

    下例中双音步为抑扬格。

    O hush thee / my baby / thy sire was / a knight.

    在同一首诗中常会出现不同的格律,格律解析对朗读诗歌有一定参考价值。现代诗中常不遵守规范的格律。

    二、 诗的押韵

    押韵是指通过重复元音或辅音以达到一定音韵效果的诗歌写作手法。

    1. 尾韵:最常见,最重要的押韵方式。

    1) 联韵:aabb型。

    I shot an arrow into the air,

    It fell to earth, I knew not where;

    For, so swiftly it flew, the sight

    Could not follow it in its flight.

    2) 交叉韵:abab型。

    Sunset and evening star,

    And one clear call for me!

    And may there be no moaning of the bar,

    When I put out to sea,

    3) 同韵:有的诗押韵,一韵到底,大多是在同一节诗中共用一个韵脚。如下例就共用/i:p/为韵脚。

    The woods are lovely, dark and deep,

    But I have promises to keep,

    And miles to go before I sleep,

    And miles to go before I sleep.

    2. 头韵:是指一行(节)诗中几个词开头的辅音相同,形成押韵。下例中运用/f/、/b/与/s/头韵生动写出了船在海上轻快航行的景象。

    The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,

    The furrow followed free,

    We were the first that ever burst

    Into that silent sea.

    3.内韵(同元音):指词与词之间元音的重复形成的内部押韵。

    下面一节诗中/i/及/iη/重复照应,呈现出一派欢乐祥和的气氛。

    Spring, the sweet spring, is the year’s pleasant king;

    Then blooms each thing, then maids dance in a ring,

    Cold doth not sting, the pretty birds do sing:

    Cuckoo, jug-jug, pu-we, to-witta-woo!

    三、 诗的体式

    有的诗分成几节(stanza),每节由若干诗行组成(每行诗均以大写字母开头);有的诗则不分节。目前我们常见的诗体有:

    1. 十四行诗 (Sonnet),源于中世纪民间抒情短诗,十三、十四世纪流行于意大利,意大利彼特拉克(Petrarch)为代表人物,每行十一个音节,全诗一节八行,加一节六行,韵脚用abba, abba, cdcdcd (cdecde)。前八行提问,后六行回答。

    后来,怀亚特(Thomas Wyatt,1503-1542)将十四行诗引人英国,五音步抑扬格,全诗三个四行一个二行,前三节提问,后二句结论。

    斯宾塞(Edmund Spenser,1552-1599)用韵脚 abab, bcbc,cdcd,ee。莎士比亚(William Shakespeare,1564-1616)用韵脚abab,cdcd,dfdf,gg,称英国式或莎士比亚式。

    Sonnet 60

    Like as the waves make towards the pibbled shore,

    So do our minutes hasten to their end;

    Each changing place with that which goes before,

    In sequent toil all forwards do contend,

    Nativity, once in the main of light,

    Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crowned,

    Crooked eclipses against his glory fight,

    And time that gave doth now his gift confound.

    Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth

    And delves the parallels in beauty's brow,

    Feeds on the rarities but for his scythe to move.

    And nothing stands but for his scythe to move.

    And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand,

    Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand.

    Notes:

    1. pibbled : pebbled 铺着卵石的

    2.In sequent toil all forwards do contend: Toiling and following each othe, the waves struggle to press forward. 波浪前推后涌,一个个在奋勇争先。此处是比喻,指时光不停息地流逝。

    3.in the main of light: 光明的金海

    4.crawls: 爬行

    5.crooked eclipses: 凶恶的日蚀

    6.transfix the flourish set on youth: remove the embellishment on the face of the youth.戳破了青春面颊上的光华(指时间)。

    7. delves the paralles: dig the paralledl furrows (wrinkles):挖下沉陷的战壕 (比喻用法,即时间在人的交前额上流下深深的皱纹)

    8.scythe to mow: 镰刀的收割(比喻用法,意指光阴的无情流逝)

    9. times in hope: future times 未来,将来,

     

    1. 像波浪滔不息地滚向沙滩

    2.我们的光阴息息奔赴着终点;

    3.后浪和前浪不断地循环替换, 

    4.前推后拥,一个个在奋勇争先。

    5.生辰,一度涌现于光明的金海,

    6.爬行到壮年,然后,既登上极顶,

    7.凶冥的日蚀便遮没它的光彩,

    8.时光又撕毁了它从前的赠品。  

    9.时光戳破了青春颊上的光艳,

    10.在美的前额挖下深陷的战壕,

    11.自然的至珍都被它肆意狂喊,

    12.一切挺立的都难逃它的镰刀:

    13.可是我的诗未来将屹立千古, 

    14.歌颂你的美德,不管它多残酷!   

       这首诗的主题是时间的无情,以及诗歌的不朽和永恒。诗人一开始便以生动的视觉意象为比喻,吸引了读者的注意力。诗人除了用大海波浪的滚滚向前比喻人生时光的无情流淌,生生不息外,还用了太阳的金光被日蚀遮住作比喻,说明时光无情消亡,一切美好的东西和青春都不会永远停留,而会随时间的流逝而迅速消逝。(delves the .... )这句,比喻时间会使青春美貌老去。这个比喻乍一听有点夸张,太虚张声势或小题大做,实际上这正与诗的崇高严肃的主题相和谐,显示出时间强大的破坏力。第2行,诗人又用了第三个意象来比喻时间:时间的流逝就像镰刀的收割。最后这两个不太温柔的比喻都暗示了时间的无情和残忍,生动之极。像通常十四行诗的最后现行一样,诗人在最后做了结论:时间残酷,但他的诗将屹立千古,歌颂“你”的美德。

    这首诗的最后的“你”,颇令人疑惑。照一些批评家的猜测,莎士比亚的十四行诗或者是献给一个英俊的独身青年,或者是给一们黝黑的美丽女士。这首诗的“你”到底是谁,让人费思量。

    2. 打油诗(Limericks):通常是小笑话甚至是胡诌,一般没有标题也无作者姓名,含有幽默讽刺性,常运用双关,内韵等手法。每首诗五个诗行,押韵为aabba,格律以抑扬格和抑抑扬格为主。

    There was a young lady of Nigger

    Who smiled as she rode on a tiger;

    They returned from the ride

    With the lady inside,

    And the smile on the face of the tiger.

    3. 无韵体(Blank Verse):五音步抑扬格,不押韵诗体。

    Across the watery bale , and shout again,

    Responsive to his call, -- with quivering peals,

    And long halloos, and screams, and echoes loud.

    Redoubled and redoubled:concourse wild

    Of jocund din!…

    4. 自由诗(Free Verse):现代诗中常见的体式,长短不同的诗行存在于同一首诗中,不讲究押韵与格律,只注重诗歌所表达的意象和传递的情感。美国诗人Walt Whitman的<<草叶集>>(Leaves of Grass)中,就采用此格式。 四、 诗的评判

    对一首诗,个人的感受会有不同。节奏流畅,语言精炼,联想新颖的诗可算是好诗。堆砌词藻,一味抒发感情而无实际内容的诗,只能是下乘的诗。

    二十世纪英美诗歌大量采用自由诗体,接近口语,可谓大胆创新,大概也是诗歌发展的大势所趋吧。

    请把下面的中文诗歌译成英文:

    美丽的心灵

    夜,很美,

    正如人们的脸。

    星星,很美,

    正如人们的眼。

    太阳也很美,

    犹如人们美丽的心灵。

    Souls of My People

    The night is beautiful,

    So the faces of my people.

    The stars are beautiful,

    So the eyes of my people.

    Beautiful, also is the sun,

    Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people.

     

    请把下面的英文诗译成中文:

    Time

    To realize the valve of ONE EYEAR

    ask the student who has failed a class.

    To realize the value of ONE MONTH,

    ask a mother who gave birth to a premature baby.

    To realize the value of ONE WEEK,

    ask the editor of a weekly newspaper.

    To realize the value of ONE HOUR,

    ask the lovers who are waiting to meet.

    To realize the value of ONE MINUTE,

    ask a person who missed the train.

    To realize the value of ONE SECOND,

    ask a person who just avoided an accident.

    To realize the value of ONE MILLISECOND,

    ask the person who won a silver medal in the Olympics.

    Treasure every moment that you have!

    Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is mystery.

    Today is a gift. That's why it's called the present!!

    《斯卡布罗集市/颂歌》(Scarborough Fair/ Canticle)原是一首古老的英国民歌,其起源可一直追溯到中世纪。后来英国民歌手马汀卡西(Martin Carthy)在原歌的基础上加进了自己的再创造,把它变成了一首非常优美的爱情歌曲。西蒙在英国时从卡西那里学会了这首歌。他又再创造性地把自己写的一首反战歌曲《山坡上》(The Side Of A Hill)作为副歌和这首歌混在一起,用对比的手法表达了对和平的渴望。(括号内是的《颂歌》的歌词):

      

    《Scarborough Fair》诗经体译词如下(英中对照)

     

      英文原歌词 诗经体的格式歌词

      Scarborough Fair 《斯卡布罗集市》

      Are you going to Scarborough Fair 问尔所之,是否如适

      Parsely sage rosemary and thyme 蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷

      Remember me to one who lives there 彼方淑女,凭君寄辞

      She once was a true love of mine 伊人曾在,与我相知

     

      Tell her to make me a cambric shirt 嘱彼佳人,备我衣缁

      Parsely sage rosemary and thyme 蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷

      Without no seams nor needle work 勿用针砧,无隙无疵

      Then she will be a true love of mine 伊人何在,慰我相思

     

      伴唱:

      On the side of hill in the deep forest green 彼山之阴,深林荒址

      Tracing of sparrow on snow crested brown 冬寻毡毯,老雀燕子

      Blankets and bed clothers the child of maintain 雪覆四野,高山迟滞

      Sleeps unawafe of the clarion call 眠而不觉,寒笳清嘶

     

      Tell her to find me an acre of land 嘱彼佳人,营我家室

      Parsely sage rosemary and thyme 蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷

      Between the salt water and the sea strand 良田所修,大海之坻

      Then she will be a true love of mine 伊人应在,任我相视

     

      伴唱:

      On the side of hill a sprinkling of leaves 彼山之阴,叶疏苔蚀

      Washes the grave with slivery tears 涤我孤冢,珠泪渐渍

      A soldier cleans and polishes a gun 昔我长剑,日日拂拭

      Sleeps unaware of the clarion call 寂而不觉,寒笳长嘶

     

      Tell her to reap it with a sickle of leather 嘱彼佳人,收我秋实

      Parsely sage rosemary and thyme 蕙兰芫荽,郁郁香芷

      And gather it all in a bunch of heather 敛之集之,勿弃勿失

      Then she will be a ture love of mine 伊人犹在,唯我相誓

     

      伴唱:

    War bellows blazing in scarlet battalions 烽火印啸,浴血之师

    Generals order their soldiers to kill and to fight for a cause将帅有令,勤王之事

      They have long ago forgoten 争斗缘何,久忘其旨

      Sleeps unaware of the clarion call 痴而不觉,寒笳悲嘶

     

    斯卡布罗集市/颂歌

    你要去斯卡布罗集市吗?

      那里有醉人的香草和鲜花

      那香味让我想起一位住在那里的姑娘

      我曾经是那么地爱她

     

      请让她为我做一件麻布的衣裳

      (山坡上那片绿色的丛林中)

      欧芹、鼠尾草、迷迭香和百里香

      (顺着麻雀在雪地上留下的一行脚印)

      没有接缝也找不到针脚

      (在毯子下面找到一个山的孩子)

      那才是我心爱的姑娘

      (他睡得正香听不到山下进军的号角)

     

      请她为我找到一亩土地

      (山坡上落叶稀疏)

      欧芹、鼠尾草、迷迭香和百里香

      (汹涌的泪水冲洗着大地)

      座落在海水和海滩之间

      (一个士兵正在擦拭手中的枪)

      那才是我心爱的姑娘

     

      请她用皮做的镰刀收割庄稼

      (战斗激烈,红衣士兵冲向敌阵)

      欧芹、鼠尾草、迷迭香和百里香

      (将军命令士兵杀死敌人)

      再用石南草札成一堆

      (战争的目的早已被遗忘)

      那才是我心爱的姑娘

     

      你要去斯卡布罗集市吗?

      那里有醉人的香草和鲜花

      那香味让我想起一位住在那里的姑娘

      我曾经是那么地爱她

    英诗欣赏

    EAGLE

    ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON (1809~1892)

    He clasps the crag with crooked hands;

    Close to the sun in lonely lands,

    Ringed with the azure world, he stands.

    The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;

    He watches from his mountain walls,

    And like a thunderbolt he falls.

    这短短六行,生动地刻划出鹰之为王者的特质。

    首节三行写其静、高孤而尊贵。作者以he、hands、stands分别取代it、claws(爪)、和perches(栖息),拟人(personification)的用法使读者感到鹰的非比寻常。更何况它像王者一般独居(in lonely lands),有青天环绕(Ringed with the azure world),与白日相亲(Close to the sun)。首行/k/和/kr/的双声铿锵地暗示出鹰的遒劲。

    后三行写其动。作者仍旧以周围环境衬托出鹰的威仪。从高踞山墙之内的鹰眼看来,汹涌的波涛不过是皱纹,在它脚下匍匐。闪电般的俯冲既是写实,也显示出鹰的「神」威-古代神只以雷电为刑罚工具。

    这首短诗的三、六两行各以掉尾句(periodic sentence)结束。予人雄浑、踏实的感觉,十分切合诗中所述鹰的王者身份。

     

    THE ANT

    RICHARD ARMOUR(1906~)

    The ant, a prodigy of strength,

    Lifes objects twice his weight and length

    And never stops or sighs or glowers

    Because it's after working hours.

    Though underground, he bears the onus

    And peril without thought of bonus,

    And never once is heard to mention

    Retiring on a tax-free pension.

    Nor does he frown or look askance

    At other, lighter-burdened ants.

    Not one to bicker, blame, or sob.

    The ant has but one flaw I see,

    To wit, he doesn't work for me.

    简评:

    蚂蚁一向被誉为“勤做工”的典范。此诗更是一一列举这位“模范工人”的美德:工作能力强,多做不抱怨,犯难不求赏,与“人”不计较,见利不思迁。这种工人真是只应“地下”有,“人”世间难求。无怪乎说话者要扼腕叹道:“只可惜他不为我工作。” 作者借蚂蚁而反衬出人类的私心。工整的韵脚添增了全诗的幽默轻松气氛。

    大意:

    蚂蚁这个大力士能举起比他体重身高多一倍的东西。它从不因过了下班时间而停工、叹气、或瞪眼。虽然在地下,他背负重担和危险,却从没想到红利,而且没听他谈到退休用免税年金养老;他也不会对其他担子较轻的蚂蚁横眉竖目。蚂蚁不是斗嘴、怪罪或呜咽之徒,也不贪图较好的工作。我看蚂蚁只有一样瑕疵-那就是:他不为我工作。

    Oh, Captain! My Captain

    By Walt Whitman

    Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,

    The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is worn,

    The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,

    While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;

    Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,

    The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is worn,

    The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,

    While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;

    But O heart! heart! heart!

    O the bleeding drops of red!

    Where on the deck my Captain lies,

    Fallen cold and dead.

     

    O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;

    Rise up--for you the flag is flung--for you the bugle trills,

    For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths--for you the shores crowding,

    For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;

    Here, Captain! dear father!

    This arm beneath your head;

    It is some dream that on the deck

    You've fallen cold and dead.

     

    My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,

    My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse or will;

    The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;

    From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;

    Exult, O Shores! and ring, O bell!

    But I, with mournful tread,

    Walk the deck my Captain lies,

    Fallen cold and dead.

    船长!我的船长!

      瓦尔特惠特曼

     

    啊, 船长!我的船长!可怕的航程已完成;

    这船历尽风险,企求的目标已达成。

    港口在望,钟声响,人们在欢欣。

    千万双眼睛注视着船----平稳,勇敢,坚定。

    但是痛心啊!痛心!痛心!

    瞧一滴滴鲜红的血!

    甲板上躺着我的船长,

    他到下去,冰冷,永别。

     

    啊, 船长!我的船长!起来吧,倾听钟声;

    起来吧,号角为您长鸣,旌旗为您高悬;

    迎着您,多少花束花圈----候着您,千万人蜂拥岸边;

    他们向您高呼,拥来挤去,仰起殷切的脸;

    啊,船长!亲爱的父亲!

    我的手臂托着您的头!

    莫非是一场梦:在甲板上

    您到下去,冰冷,永别。

     

    我的船长不作声,嘴唇惨白,毫不动弹;

    我的父亲没感到我的手臂,没有脉搏,没有遗言;

    船舶抛锚停下,平安抵达;航程终了;

    历经艰险返航,夺得胜利目标。

    啊,岸上钟声齐鸣,啊,人们一片欢腾!

    但是,我在甲板上,在船长身旁,

    心悲切,步履沉重。

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