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  • 主页 > 外贸英语 > 外贸函电 > 正文
  • 英文合同(起草合同)

    作者:ihome 时间: 2011-06-16 20:49 来源:未知 点击:

    准备工作做好以后,我们就要开始来起草合同了。在起草合同时,有几点需要注意:

    1. Start with a simple, generic contract form. Like a house, a contract must have a good, solid foundation.


    从简单、典型的合同入手。像房子一样,一个合同必须有一个牢固的根基。

    2. State the correct legal names of the parties in the first paragraph. As obvious as this is, it is one of the most common problems in contracts. For individuals, include full first and last name, and middle initials if available, and other identifying information, if appropriate, such as Jr., M.D., etc. For corporations, check with the Secretary of State where incorporated.


    在合同的第一段要写清楚双方的名称。这个问题很简单,但也需要重视。如果是个人,要写清姓和名,中间名可能的话应写上大写首字母,其他身份信息如果需要也应注明,例如:Jr.,M.D,等等;如果是公司,为避免弄错,写名称时可以到公司注册地的相应机构去核对一下。

    3. Identify the parties by nicknames. Giving each party a nickname in the first paragraph will make the contract easier to read. For example, James W. Martin would be nicknamed "Martin."


    确定合同双方的别称(简称)。为便于阅读,一般要在合同的第一段为双方设定一个别称,如:将詹姆士·马丁简称为“马丁”。

    4. Be careful when using legal terms for nicknames. Do not use "Contractor" as a nickname unless that party is legally a contractor. Do not use "Agent" unless you intend for that party to be an agent, and if you do, then you better specify the scope of authority and other agency issues to avoid future disagreements.


    使用法定术语作为双方当事人的别称时,要小心。除非一方当事人在法定上就是承包人,否则不要将"承包人"作为其别称。同样,除非你想让一方当事人成为法定上的代理人,否则不要称其为"代理人",如果坚持要用,最好明确一下代理范围并找到其他可以避免将来争执的方案。

    5. Include a blank for the date in the first paragraph. Putting the date in the first paragraph makes it easy to find after the contract is signed. It also makes it easy to describe the contract in other documents in a precise way, such as the "December 20, 2000, Contract for Sale of real estate."


    在合同的第一段要为书写签约时间留下空格。把签约时间放在第一段,当合同签署后,你就可以很容易地找到它,而且,这样做还可以给你在其他相关文件中准确地描述这个合同提供帮助,例如:不动产买卖合同,订立于2000年12月20日。

    6. Include background. Recitals are the "whereas" clauses that precede the body of a contract. They provide a simple way to bring the contract's reader (party, judge or jury) up to speed on what the contract is about, who the parties are, why they are signing a contract, etc. The first paragraph in the body of the contract can incorporate the recitals by reference and state that they are true and correct. This will avoid a later argument as to whether or not the recitals are a legally binding part of the contract.


    书写引述语。引述语是指那些放在合同主体前面的"鉴于"条款。书写此类条款的目的是为了让读者(通常指合同双方,法官,陪审团)很快地了解到合同的主要内容是什么,合同双方是谁,以及他们为什么签订合同,等等。当然,合同主体的第一段也可以加上声明,并说明其是真实准确的,如果这样做了,合同双方将来就不会就引述语作为合同的一部分是否具有法律效力而争执。

    7. Outline the contract by writing out and underlining paragraph headings in their logical order. The paragraphs should flow in logical, organized fashion. It is not necessary to write them all at once; you can write them as you think of them. Try to group related concepts in the same paragraphs or in adjacent paragraphs. For example, write an employment contract's initial paragraph headings like this:
    Recitals.
    Employment.
    Duties.
    Term.
    Compensation.

    列出合同大纲,按逻辑顺序列出合同段落的标题词。合同的段落是按一定的逻辑顺序组织起来的,当然,你并不需要一下子列出所有段落的标题词,想到多少就写多少。将相关的概念在一个段落或是在连续的段落里表达。比如:劳动合同的标题词:
    引述语
    聘用
    职责
    期限
    赔偿

    8. Complete each paragraph by writing the contract terms that apply to that paragraph. Just explain in words what the parties agree to do or not do paragraph by paragraph.


    在撰写每一段时要注意内容集中,不要东拉西扯。说明合同双方同意做什么,不同意做什么就可以了。

    9. Keep a pad at hand to remember clauses to add. It is normal to think of additional clauses, wording and issues while writing a contract. Jot these down on a pad as you write; they are easily forgotten. Also keep your client's outline and other forms in front of you as you write, and check off items as you write them.


    放一个便笺簿在手边,以便记下需要添加的条款。在书写合同的同时,你可能随时会想到一些需要添加的条款、措词和问题,要尽快记在便笺簿上,以免忘记。另外,你最好将客户列出的要点和一些类似的合同范本也放在眼前,以便在书写过程中随时查对。

    10. Repeat yourself only when repetition is necessary to improve clarity. Ambiguity is created by saying the same thing more than once. Only if the concept is a difficult one should you write it in more than one way. In addition, if you use an example to clarify a difficult concept or formula, be sure that all possible meanings are considered and that the example is accurate and consistent with the concept as worded.


    除非是为了更清晰地说明问题,否则不要在合同中重复陈述某个内容。反复地陈述同一个东西很容易让人模棱两可。只有当一个概念难于理解时,你才应该用不同的方式书写。另外,如果你想通过一个例子来阐明一个难以理解的概念或规则时,一定要考虑到其所有的含义、这个例子的准确性以及它和概念的相符性。

     

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